Ladies and gentlemen, good morning, Today, we are going to visit the Museum of Terracotta Warriors and Horses. This museum is located at the foot of mountain Li Shan, about 35 kilometers east of Xi’an.First, I will give you a brief introduction about the master of this underground army---the First Qin Emperor, Yingzheng. He came to the throne at the age of 13 and seized the power at the age of 22 . By 221BC, he had annexed all the six independent states and established the first centralized autocratic feudal empire in the long history of China.
After the unification of the whole country, he styled himself the First Emperor and standardized the coinage, weights and measures, the legal codes, the written scripts and so on. He also ordered the linkage of the original Great Wall. All these exerted an everlasting influence on the long feudal history of China. But the First Qin Emperor was very ambitious. As soon as he came to the throne, he ordered that a magnificent mausoleum should be built for him. It took 37 years to complete this great project. Actually, the site of those terracotta warriors and horses we now see is just a small part of his mausoleum.
Ok, everyone, now we are standing at the front gate of the Eighth Wonder of the world---the Museum of Terracotta Warriors and Horses. As one of the top ten places of historical interest in China, it was also listed as a world heritage site.So next, let’s go to uncover the veil of this miraculous work.
In March 1974,when several farmers were sinking a well about 1.5km east of the First Qin Emperor’s Maosolem, they came upon many fragments of the terracotta figures.The results of archaeological excavation showed that is two more pits were discovered respectively.They were then named pit1，pit2, and pit3 by the order of discovery.The new discovery stirred up a sensation all over the world.In order to provide the historical artifacts with adequate protection, a musem was set up on the site of Pit 1 in 1975 upon the approval of the state council.
Pit 1,covers an area of 16,300 square meters, is an earth-and-wood structure in the shape of a tunnel. The terra cotta armies in pit 1 were arranged in battle formation. In the front of this formation, there are 210warriors in 3 lines facing forward. Armed with bows and arrows, they constitute the so-called vanguard. Meanwhile, there is one row of warriors on each of the borders of this pit, facing outward---they are the flanks and the rear guard. Holding long-distance shooting weapons, they took up the job of defending the whole army.Then, this way please. We may find ten partition walls which divided this pit into 11 corridors. The warriors standing inside them with horse-drawn chariots represent the principal military force of this battle formation. According to the density, there are over 6000 terracotta warriors and horses, and most of them are infantrymen.
Ok, Here now we arrived at Pit 2. we can see that Pit 2 is still under cover, that’s because we want to preserve them. Pit 2 consists of 4 different mixed military forces in four arrays, they are infantrymen, cavalrymen, archers and charioteers .And pit 2 also include many chariots and horses. They can be divided to act independently, capable of attacking, and defending with a quick response. As you see, those worriors, their feet, legs, bodies, necks, hands and heads, all with different faces, were all made separately and joined together. we may find they are all vivid and true to life.And also as we can see, here are some actual weapons unearthed in those pits. The most
attractive one is a bronze sword. Although it was buried over thousands of years, it is still very sharp. It can cat through 20 pieces of paper put together.
Now we come to pit 3. Pit 3 covers an area of about 520 square meters. There are only 68 warriors and 4 clay horses. The warriors were arranged opposite to each other in two rows, and only one kind of weapon called “SHU” had been discovered. This kind of weapon has no blade, and is believed to be used by the guards of honor. We have found many animal bones in the north side, and it is supposed to be “Prayer Hall”, and “Commander’s office” is on the south side. This suggests pit 3 is the headquarters directing the whole underground army.
Then we have arrived at the exhibition hall of Bronze Chariots and Horses. In 1980, two sets of large painted bronze chariots and horses were found. They broke into thousands of pieces when we found them and after 8 years’ careful restoration; they were rebuilt and open to the public. The first one was named “High Chariot” and the second one was called “Security Chariot”. They were the eariliest and most exquisitely and intricately made bronze valuables,and also the largest bronze wares discovered in the history of world archaeology.It provides extremlyvaluable material and data for the research of the metallurgical technique and technological modeling og the Qin Dynasty.
So now we will finish our journey in the museum today, I believe that you must be very astonished at this world wonder.So it’s your time,you can work around and take some pictures. thank you for listening~
I am very proud to have the opportunity to be your guide. Today we are going to visit Great Wall.
History of The Great Wall(长城的历史)
Construction of the Great Wall first began in the seventh century BC.At that time, it was called Spring and Autumn Period. The first section of wall, that appeared in China, was built by the Qin Kingdom and the Chu Kingdom.They had a high wall which was called“square wall” or“square city”built surrounding their own territories to defend the attack of their neighboring enemy. So it was also known as the Qi Great Wall and the Chu Great Wall.In order to defend themselves against the infringing enemy from the neighboring states, all the kingdoms had sections of high walls constructed around their own territories for self-protection.They built high walls at the strategic points of the north.These high walls were the primitive prototype of the present day Great Wall and laid the foundation for the present Great Wall.
In Chinese history, this is the largest project carried out in three dynasties that brought the climax of the development of the Great Wall. Large-scale construction of the Great Wall was concentrated in the Qin ,Han and Ming dynasties .
In 221 BC ,Qin Shihuang defeated the other six kingdoms and unified China. In order to consolidate the unity ,he decided to link up the separate sections of high walls,built by different kingdoms ,into the Great Wall.
Then he sent Meng Tian, a military general, with 300,000 soldiers and one million civilian up to north to build up the Great Wall. A great many sections were linked up and expanded, and finally it was extended into a Great Wall. When it was finished ,the total length of the Great Wall was over 7,000 kilometers long .The Qin Great Wall started from Lintao, Gansu Province in the west and ended in Liaodong ,Liaoning Province in the east.
Large-scale construction of the Great Wall was ongoing throughtout the reign of Emperor Wu Di in the Han Dynasty .In order to ward off the Huns as well as to protect the Silk Road, they also had the Great Wall extended towards the west for another 5,000 kilometers long to the Lop Nur Lake in today’s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.The Han Great Wall started from the Liaodong Peninsula in the east ,and ended at the foot of the Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,with a total length of 10,000 kilometers.
The last large-scale project on the Great Wall was carried out in the Ming Dynasty. In 1368, right after Zhu Yuanzhang established the Ming Dynasty ,he started the reconstruction of the Great Wall immediately on the basis of the Qin Great Wall .Since the remaining forces of the Yuan often made counterattacks on Beijing and the threats of the newly raised ethnic tribe of “Nu Zhen”also threatened the Ming Court, Ming Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang paid great attention to construction of the Great Wall and stationed troops along the Wall.
The whole project of the Ming Great Wall took more than 200 years to complete , and there were 18 large-scale constructions of the Great Wall in the Ming Dynasty. After that, the total length of Ming Great Wall was more than 7,000 kilometers from Yalu River in Liaoning Province in the east ,to Jiayuguan Pass in Gansu Province in the west .It passes nine cities, provinces and autonomous regions of Liaoning, Hebei, Tianjin, Beijing, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Ningxia and Gansu.This is the Great Wall we see today.
The main force for the Great Wall was composed of solidiers defending the frontier, exiles and criminals, as well as the local laborers.
In ancient times the Great Wall was not only a strong defensive project but also played a very important military and economic role.The function of the Great Wall in Chinese History was mainly in Military strategies, Economy, and Perfect harmony of various nationalities.The most important is in Military strategies.
The Great Wall at Juyongguan Pass(居庸关长城)
Juyongguan Pass is located at 50 kilometers northwest of downtown Beijing.The mountions flanking the valley have many graceful peaks. The slopes on both sides of the narrow passes are covered with dense trees and plants. So, it used to be one of the famous” Eight Views of Yanjing”.There was a 20-kilometer-long valley called “Guangou Valley” from south to north, with 4 passes along the valley named “Nankou，Juyongguan，Shangguan and Badaling”.They were of great strategic importance in defending the national capital of Beijing.JuYongguan Pass is one of them.
The name “Juyong ”in Chinese means “a place of poor laborers”. According to historical records ,Emperor Qin Shihuang forced many conscripts to build this part of the Great Wall.
Inside Juyong Pass there is an ancient marble platform known as“Cloud Terrace”.It was first built in 1342 during the Yuan Dynasty.There used to be three Tibetan style pagodas built on the terrace with a road passing under it from north to south. Therefore, it was also called “The Crossing Road Pagoda”.Later, when the pagodas were destroyed, a temple was built on the very site . However，the temple was burnt down in a fire in the early years of the Qing Dynasty，so only the terrace remained. There are also Buddhist scriptures inscribed on the stone wall in the Sanskrit，Tibetan，Basiba(a kind of Mongolian script)，Xixia，Uygur and Han languages.They offer us wonderful examples of their exquisite workmanship and vividness in carving.They are extremely valuable to the study of Buddhism and ancient languages.
Today on the way to Badaling Great Wall you can see a railway running by the Badaling Expressway. It is well-known at the Beijing- Zhangjiakou Railway. It is more than 200 kilometers away from Beijing to Zhangjiakou.The railway is very famous in China because it was the first railway designed and constructed by Chinese itself. Its chief designer was Zhan Tianyou-a famous railway engineer in China.
The Great Wall at Badaling(八达岭长城)
The Badaling Great Wall is about 75 kilometers northwest of Beijing，and it is the best-preserved part of the Great Wall.Bada means“convenient transportation to all directions”. Roads from Badaling lead to Yanqing Country to its north; Xuanhua, Zhangjiakou and Datong to the west; to the east is Yongning and Sihai; Beijing is to the south. From here people can go to all directions，hence the name of Badaling. The Badaling section is about 12 kilometers long with 24 watch towers and 4 wall platforms. There are four characters inscribed on the eastern pass of Badaling; “Juyongwaizhen” which means there was another strategic town outside the Juyong Pass. On the western pass of Badaling, there is an inscription with four words “ Beimensuoyue” carved on the top of the pass, which means, “a key to the north gate”, describing that Badaling Pass was just like a lock on the gate of Beijing. Therefore, if the gate was unlocked by a key, Beijing would be open to danger.
East of Badaling Pass lies a big rock known as, “Looking-Toward Beijing Rock.” Originally, this rock was a huge rock measuring 7 meters long and 2 meters wide. It is said that in 1900, when the Eight Allied Forces attacked Beijing, Empress Dowager Cixi hastily escaped from Beijing. When she got here, she suddenly wanted to see the city of Beijing once again. She got up on this big rock and turned to look toward Beijing in the distance, so that’s why it is called “Looking-Toward Beijing Rock”
The Great Wall at Badaling averages 7.8 meters high, 6.5 meters wide at its base, and 5.8 meters on the top, wide enough for five horses or ten solidiers walking abreast on the wall.
Watch Towers were built at regular intervals on the Great Wall itself for watching over the invading enemy .A watch tower was usually two stories high, and the defense solidiers lived inside. The ground floor was used for storing weapons and had a number of windows for archers. The upper floor had battlements, peep holes and apertures for archers. In the middle of the tower there were small living quarters for the defense solidiers.The watch towers were not only used by the defending troops to take shelter from the wind ,rain and heat, but also to fight and check the enemy’s advance ,and store arms and ammunition .
Beacon towers were built on both sides of the Wall at the commanding points，which were at the top of the mountains or the twists and turns for making warning signals. Whenever the emeny was sighted, fires were lit on the top of the beacon tower at night ,and the smoke in daytime. The smoke was specially made by burning dried wolves’ dung in daytime. Moreover, the number of the fire and smoke could reveal the number of invading enemies.The signal of a single fire or smoke with one shot of artillery fire, warned the invading troops of 100 enemies; two smokes and two shots of gunfire indicated 500 enemies; if the number of the coming enemies was around 1,000, there were three smokes and three shots of gunfire. Four smokes and four shots of gunfire indicated over 5,000 enemies, and 10,000 enemies with five smokes, ect. In this way , the commanders would not only know where the enemy was approaching, but also the numbers of the enemy. Then they could be well prepared for defense against the enemy.
Well, that is all for my presentation .Thanks for your attention. I’m looking forward to your next visit. Thank you!
Ladies and gentlemen, welcome to Henan province。First, please let me introduce myself to you .My name is ##，Yang is my family name ,Ill be your local guide during your stayhere ,This is Mr Zhang ,our driver ,He is conscientious and seasoned.(有责任心和经验)。So you are in good hands when riding inhis coach, to avoid getting a wrong bus .wed better remember the number andthe features of our bus .the number is 21806 and its color is red, if you haveany special interests, please let me know, my job is to smooth your way and trymy best to answer your questions, we highly appreciate your understanding and cooperation.
It willtake us half an hour to our destination, the Longmen-Grottoes . During this time, Id like to give you abrief introduction about Henanprovince. (介绍河南)Henan province ,also called yu for short,meaning a man pulling an elephant ,is situated right in the heart of China ,soit is also named central Plain or centralState, covering an area of 167000 square kilometers, with a total populationof 100 million ,which is the largest of all provinces in China.
As we all know, the Yellow River is the cradle of Chinese civilization, is our mother river. Andit runs through 8 cities of Henan province, as its name means ,the province islocated to the southern bank of the Yellow River, A great number of history books andexcavation have proved that 8000 years ago, Chinese ancestors started thecivilization here. So every year, many Chinese descendants from home and abroadto worship the fathers. The last few years has seen the development of Henan province. Especially in the industry and agriculture.The GDP of Henan has been ranked top in the middle area.
Henanprovince is famous not only for its long history and rich culture, but also forits beautiful natural scenery. For the overseas tourists, Henan province is just like a naturalhistory museum with splendid culture civilization.
While Luoyangis located at the western part of Henan Province. situated in thenorthern bank of the Luohe River and faces the sun,hence get the name. It is famous both for its long history of ancient cultureand modern industry, but its more famous for being ancient capitals. Among Chinas 8 ancient capitals, Luoyang is the earliest one with the longesthistory. Well ,around 13 km south ofLuoyang ,there are two picturesque hills confronting each other with the YiRiver flowing northward between them, connected by an arched stone bridgeresembling a natural gate tower. This is the right place named Longmen, wherethe well-known Longmen-Grottoes is located. It was proclaimed as thefirst-grade cultural relics for national protection by the State Council in1961 and was also listed as the World Cultural Heritage by the United NationsEducational Scientific and Cultural Organization at the very end of thetwentieth century.
Through the Qianxi Temple,we step into the Binyang Caves. It consists ofthree large caves, the North, the middle and the South caves. They were allbuilt under the imperial court of the Northern Wei Dynasty. The construction ofthe Mid Binyang Cave was ended in 523 AD with duration of 24 years, over800,000 man-days, that is, nearly 100 people worked on it at the same timeevery day by an average for 24 years. The mainBuddha sitting in the middle isSakyamuni about 8.4 m high with a delicate and preery smiling face, flanked bytwo disciples, two Boddhisattvas on the back wall. Please look around , theside walls were also carved with four layers of relief, like Emperor andEmpress Dowager worshiping the Buddha with their servants. They are allmasterpiece of the Northern Wei sculptures, but unfortunately the later wasstolen in the 1930s and mow is kept in the United States.
After through the LotusCave ,we step in Fengxian Temple,the symbol or the soul of the world-known great Longmen-GROTTOES. It is thelargest Buddhist niche t Longmen. It was built under the imperial deict ofEmperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty, with about 20 years of construcrionduration, started in 655 AD and completed in shortening the time of theproject, Empress Dowager Wu Zetian donated 20,000 Strings of Cash Coins for hercosmentics and also attended the consecration of the chief Buddha when the constructionwas thoroughly completed. Please look at here, the chief Buddha sitting straightlyin the center named Losana, the Rewarding Buddha of Buddhism, boasts thebiggest statue at Longmen, attaining a height of 17.14m , with its head 4m,each eat 1.9, flanked by two symmetrical disciples, Boddhisattvas, HeavenlyKings and Great Men of Strength on both sides. So we would rather say that theoverall arrangement of the Fengxian Temple is a scene of agrand imperial court than a spot of Buddhiam. Ladies and Gentleman, now we arein the Prescription Cave, the cave derivedits name just from the 140 prescriptions engraved at the doorway or inside thecave. The construction was started in the Northern Qi Dynasty and completed inthe early Tang Dynasty with an intermittent duration of 200 years. Itsprescription preserved in the cave boast the earliest of all the prescriptioncarvings of ancient times.
Seeing the Guyang Cave,means the approach to the end of the visit to Longmen-grottoes. The creation ofthe Guyang Cave in 493 AD marked the formal startof the Buddhist carving project at Longmen under the royal court of theNorthern Wei Dynasty in large scale. Thus it has a history of over 1,500 years.The three lines of niches with images, fine in ornament and different inpattern, were engraved on both walls, forming an excellent combination of carving,painting, calligraphy, and architecture. What must be particularly pointed outis that the famous inscriptions, the cream if calligraphy, called “The TwentyChoice of Calligraphy at Longmen.
Ladies and Gentlemen：
Welcome to Beijing.Beijing is the capital of China as well as one of the four ancient capitals in china.Many foreign friends known Beijing because of the the success of the Olympic Games. Please sit back and relax. Iam your local guide for your Beijing tour ,you can call me Amry.This is our driver Mr. Zhang.We will make every effort to provide the best quality service.Like me, Beijingers are always ready to welcome friends from all over the world with their most hospitality.During you Beijing tour we will visit the Forbidden City、Great Wall、Summer Palace and other attractions.I hope that the old as well as fashion Beijing will leave you a good memory.
The first attraction of our tour in Beijing is the Forbidden City.The first thing people would think of when talking about the Forbidden City is it the place where Chinese emperors used to live and hold their courts. .But the value of the Forbidden City is not limited to this.It is a microcosm of Chinese history, Chinese culture and Chinese architecture.The Forbidden City is located in center oBeijing. It was imperial palace of both Ming and Qing dynasties.With a history of over 600 years, it is the largest and most complete palace complex that still exists in the world. 24 emperors had rule the empir from here for more than 500 years. Forbidden City is also called Purple Forbidden City .In the feudal[fju:dl]封建时代的 society ,emperors had supreme至高的. power , so this residence was certainly a forbidden place . Purple was the symbolic[simb?lik] 象征color of the North Star which was believed to be the center of the cosmos宇宙 .So it got the name of Purple Forbidden City.
The building arrangement within the Forbidden City is symmetrical对称的.And it is divided into two parts :the outer court and the inner court .The former is the place where emperors handled courts事物 and held different ceremonies仪式.It consists of Taihe ,Zhonghe and Baohe Halls.Taihe hall is the largest hall within the Forbidden City.It was the location where Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty Emperors hosted their enthronement and wedding ceremonies .The inner court consists of Qianqing, Jiaotai and Kunming Halls where the emperor lived and handled day-to-day work.The lmperial Garden lies on north of the Kunming Hall. It looks like a natural picture.This is the place where the emperor and his family play.
Since the founding of new China, the Forbidden City has been well maintained.It was made part of the world cultural heritage list in 1987.Tody as the largest museum of cultural relics in China, it collected and displayed one million precious relics .
Now I want to ask you a question.How many houses are there in the Forbidden City? It was said that there were 10000 rooms in the complex of the Heaven Palace .As the son of the heaven , emperor had to build only 9999.5 rooms .Actually ,there are only 8707 rooms in the Forbidden City.
As The saying goes, seeing is believing.With curiosity, lets walk into the Forbidden City.Lets appreciate Chinese culture and feel the history of the rise and fall of the Chinese emperors.
Good morning! Lidies and gentlemen. I am very glad to be your local guide of this travel for HS Mountain. on behalf of our travel agency ,we hope that all of you well feel as good as today’s sunshine ,and enjoy yourselves.
Now we have arrived in the Mount Huang. Firstly I had better introduce the HS to you .
HS Mountain, is located in the south of An hui Province, It is one part of the Chinese Nan ling sierra. Entire mountain area is approximately 1,200 square kilometers. HS Mountain was called Yi Mountain before Tang Dynasty. Can you guess the meaning of Yi? It means “black ”.Because there are too many black rocks on the mountain.So the ancient people gave it such name. Chinese emperor Huangdi came here for gathering herbs and refining elixir. And he took a bath in the hot spring. Thus he became a immortal. Tang Dynasty Emperor LiLongji extremely believed in the legend. So he renamed the mountain HS . The meaning is that this mountain is Emperor Huangdi’s mountain. From then on, HS Mountain this name has been used till today.
HS Mountain is certainly beautiful. It may be said that it is the wonderful mountain. Having a look with our own eyes is truly a big happy event in our life. Who know the four uniques of HS mountain ? Let me introduce them to you.
The first is strangely-shaped pines. Why are the pines strange? Because HS pines grow up from hard granite instead of rich soil. After thousands of years, their root deeply strike into rock seam. They are not afraid of drought and storm.
The second is grotesque rock. There are so many grotesque rocks all over HS mountain. Some of them are like man’s appearance. Some are like objects’shapes. And also some are endowed with myths and history stories.In 121 famous grotesque rocks, some of the well-known are“ flying stone” “fairy playing chess” “magpie on plum” “monkey viewing sea”. They are all magical and lifelike.
The third is the seas of clouds. The Qing Dynasty emperor Kangxi had once written a plaque for HS . There are four words“Huang Hai Tian Du”on it. Every time after the rain and snow, HS will appear spectacular changeable seas of clouds. HS set off by the seas of clouds and becomes colorful,just like human fairyland. According to the position,the seas of clouds are divided into east sea,south sea,west sea ,north sea and sky sea.And on the lotus peak,Tiandu peak,Bright top,you can overlook the vast seas ofclouds,and enjoy “To the end of the sea,sky is the shore;Up to the mountain,I am the peak”.
What’s the last one? Who can guess? Yeah, it’s hot spring. Water from the springs is odorless. It contains minerals which are beneficial to treat many diseases .Hot springs flow from the foot of Purple Cloud Peak.
The temperature of hot springs keeps in 42 degrees or so.
Now we are entering Yu ping scenic spot. Look, this is the Tiandu peak. It is one of the 3 main peaks of HS mountain and also the steepest. It is 1810 meters above sea level. In ancient times it was called “Quan Xian Suo Du”, meaning“ heaven city”. This peak is steep and straight and has the magnificent momentum. Can you feel it? In the HS Mountain peaks, it is the most spectacular. The Lotus peak, Bright Top and Tiandu peak are known as 3 peaks of HS.
My friends, our journey will come to an end at once, I also have to say goodbye to you. We have been friends already and had a wonderful time. Wish you all happiness more and more. If there is a chance, hope you come to China again. And we will welcome you forever!
Ladies and gentleman:
I am very pleased to serve as your tour guide. Today we are going to visit the ancient town of Lijiang------before we get there, Id like to give you a brief introduction to it.
Located in northwest of YN province, Lijiang is about 580 kilometers away from KM with an average elevation of 2400 meters. The population of Lijiang is about 1.12 million. Among which the population of Naxi the main nationality here, is 260000.so how about the surroundings of Lijiang.
Located in the north of Lijiang town, the Yulong snow mountains is the
southernmost modern marine glaciers in the temperate zone of the north hemisphere. the other famous scenic spots around Lijiang are--- the Laojunshan mountain, Lugu lake and the Tiger Leaping Gorge which are also very famous and attracted many tourists. The famous characteristics of Naxi culture are the 3 living fossils, they are----the character fossil. Created in Tang Dynasty, the Dongba character was regarded as the only existing hieroglyph; and the music fossil, the Naxi ancient music, later we will fully appreciate the beauty and mystery of the music, I will give you more details; and the third fossil is the human society fossil, the Mosuo matriarchal family.Most Mosuo people living near the Lugu lake still practice their walking marriage custom. At night the man comes to the womans house and return to his house in the morning, so they live separately. Women manage the households and yield works, play a more important role than men in family life.
Now we have come to the ancient town of Lijiang, which enjoys the fame eastern Venice. And it has another name-Dayan town, which literally means –a great ink slab, with Lion Mountain in the west and Elephant Mountain in the north, the ancient town is surrounded by green hills, so it looks like a jade ink slab. The town was first built in song dynasty and has a long history of 800 years. In 1997 it was listed in the world culture heritage.
Now we are arriving at the entrance to the town, as you can see, there is a big carved wall in front of us, from the figures on the surface of the wall, you can see a character who has similar image to a monk, but in Naxi culture he is a Dongba whose function is like a priest in Christianity, he plays a very important role in Naxi peoples life. Especially for faith.
Going ahead we will see a white screen with an inscription by former leader Jiang zeming on May 2 1997 meaning –the worlds cultural heritage: the ancient town of the Lijiang.
Now you can see the old town has no walls, it was said that the hereditary ruler of Lijiang used to be surnamed Mu but If this character Mu was surrounded with a frame or a wall, it would become an another Chinese character ---Kun, which means siege or predicament. So there is no stone wall surrounded, very different from other old town in china right?
Ok lets pay attention to the two waterwheels, which are said to be lover waterwheels or mother and son waterwheels, but no matter what they stand for, they have the same meaning---they will nestle to each other for ever.
Follow me, Lets walk up to the Yulong bridge, the spring from the Yulong snow mountain is divided into 3 branches and sub-branches to flow into the old town. So let me give you a tip, because there are so many streets and lanes in the town, it is like a maze. if you are lost , you can easily find the entrance to the ancient town by walking up any of the streams.
So everyone is here? Lets go into the old town. The road under our feet is parallel to the streams which can wash the road when blocked up, so the streets are neither muddy in the rainy season nor dusty in the dry season. The town depends on water for existence, so there are so many streams that more than 350 wooden or stone bridges in the town were built. And the most famous bridges are the Baisui Bridge and Dashi Bridge which also called Men Bridge.
Through the Dashi Bridge, now we have come to the Sifang Street, which means Square Street. Because it looks like a Chinese seal meaning ruling everywhere, it is the center of the ancient town. The square street is surrounded by five main streets; they are Xinhua Wuyi Qiyi Guangyi Xinyi leading in all directions.
In ancient times ，it had been an important marketing center on the ancient Tea-Horse Road. The trade history was more than 300 years. But now many handicraft shops, tea houses and restaurants make it a sea of the visitors. In every Saturdays evening. The Naxi people usually gather and dance here, unfortunately today is Monday we cant catch that fantastic night. And around the square there are many protected Naxi traditional building, the typical styles are “three houses and one screen wall” and “four houses and five courtyards. This building is called Kegong Archway, it was built 100 years ago to honor the 3 brothers passed the provincial official enrolling exams. The original building was 2 storied, but it was destroyed by fire and rebuilt as 3-story on the former site
Now the Naxi boys and girls are coming, you can see the Naxi men have the same clothes as Han people, on the contrary, most Naxi women wear blue blouses and trousers, covered by blue or black aprons. The T-shaped traditional ape On the back symbolizes the heavens, the seven embroidered circles symbolize the Dipper. 2 larger circles, one on each shoulder, symbolize sun and moon, which mean they work day and night, so it is very lucky to marry a Naxi woman, (bachelors should not miss this opportunity.)
Now we are enjoying the Naxi ancient music, it was praised by the contemporary as the “living fossil of music “it is composed of “Baisha Fine music” “dongjing music” and ”huangjing music” and all the performers are Naxi minority. There are usually 24 players in the group, some of them are aged. They use the original instruments, which are not seen in other parts of the world. There are more than 5 theaters for this Chinese classic music. But all of them are quite atmospheric, with wooden stages for the musicians and wood chairs and benches for the audiences, sitting here, listening to the Naxi music; you will be lost in this chinas Shangri-la.
Now our visit to Lijiang is drawing to a close, I am afraid everyone must be hungry. Now we will go back to the hotel and have supper. At night we will join the campfire with Naxi people. Lets go!!!!